1. Muharram : This is the first month in the Islamic calendar. The literal meaning of Muharram is Forbidden. This is a month regarded as a holy month by the Arabs and it was a month of cessation of hostilities. Arabs refrained from fighting each other in this month. The 10th of Muharram also has great significance as most of the historical happenings occurred on this date, including when Allah SWT freed Musa (PBUH) and his people of Bani Israel from Firaun (Pharoah) by paving a way for them in the Red sea and drowning Firaun and his followers.
That is why the Prophet SAW ordered us to fast on this day as a celebration of this event. It was also in this month that HadhratHussain (R.A.) was martyred.
This is the second month of the Islamic calendar. It was claimed to be a cursed month as most of the calamities took place on this month. But the Prophet SAW debunked this fallacy saying HadhratJaabir (R.A.) has said that, “I have heard the Prophet saying, the descending of illness and evil superstition befalling in the month ofSafar is untrue.” (Muslim).
It was also the month in which Hadhrat Ali (R A ) married Hadhrat Fatima (R.A.), (the daughter of the Prophet SallallahuAlaihiWasallam) in the latter days of Safar 2 A.H.
3.Rabi ul-Awwul: This is the third month of the Islamic calendar. The meaning of this month is it is the first month of spring. One of the major events that occurred in this month is the birth of the Holy Prophet SAW as a blessing to all of mankind.
It was also the month in which the Prophet SAW migrated from Makkah to MadinaMunawwarah.
4.Rabi ul-Akhir: This is the fourth month on the Islamic calendar. The literal meaning is the second month of spring.
One of the major events that occurred in this month is the battle of Furu’ from Buhraan took place in 3 A.H Sariyyah-Battle in which the Holy Prophet did not take part in, instead he consigned one of his Companions as the colonel. The consigned: Sariyyah Ali IBn Abi Talib in the 9th Hijri. Sariyyah-IbnAlqamahMujaazzizMudlejee.
5.Jumad Al Awwal: This is the fifth month on the Islamic calendar. The battle of “Moota” took place on this month in 8 A.H. It was a war against infidels in which the Prophet SAW didn’t participate, Hadrat Zaid IbnHaritha (R.A) was the first appointed general by the Prophet SAW. The battle was named after the famous city in Syria, Moota.
It was also on this month that Prophet Mohammed SAW married Khadija (May Allah be pleased with her) 15 years before his prophet hood.
6. Jumad Al Thani: This the sixth month on the Islamic calendar.The battle of Salaasil took place in this month on 8 A.H.
7.Rajab: This is the seventh month on the the Islamic calendar. Its name was derived from the Arabic word RAJABA meaning respect. It was on this month that the Holy Prophet SAW embarked on his journey to Heaven on the 27th of Rajab on either Sunday or Monday (Mi’raaj).
8.Sha’baan: This is the eight month on the Islamic calendar. The Prophet SAW said, “Sha’baan is my month and Ramadaan the month of Allah Ta’aalaa.” (Daylami)
Some of the major events in this month is “Laila-tulBaraa’at (Night of forgiveness) the fifteenth night of Sha’baan. It was also on this month that the “Qibla” or direction to be faced during salah was changed back to the Ka’aba in Makkah after it was changed to BaitulMuqqadas in Jerusalem for a short period of time.
9.Ramadan: This is the ninth month on the Islamic calendar. The word was derived from the Arabic word “Ar-ramda” which means intense heat as the month usually occurred in a time of heat in the Arabian Peninsula.This is the month in which the Quran descended from “LauheMahfooz” (on the seventh sky) to the first of the skies.
It is also in this month that we Muslims are ordered to fast. It is also in this month that lies LAYLATUL QADR a night which is greater than a 1000 months of worship. Victory of Makkah also took place in the year 8 A.H, entering Makkah on the 18th of Ramadan.
10.Shawwal: This is the tenth month on the Islamic calendar. EiddulFitr falls on this month. Fasting on this month after the Eid also has many virtues, The Prophet SAW said “Whoever fasts Ramadan and follows it with six days of Shawwal, it will be as if he fasted for a lifetime.” (Muslim)
It is also the month in which HazratA`ishah (R.A) got married to the Prophet SAW.
11.Dhulal-Qa’dah: This is the elevent month on the Islamic calendar. It is amongst the months of Hajj and was also the month in which the Prophet SAW and his companions (may Allah may be pleased with them) returned to Makkah for performing Umrah in 7 A.H.
12.Dhul al-Hijjah: This is the last and one of the most virtuous months in the Islamic calendar. It got its name because it is the month in which the 5th pillar of Islam-the Hajj-is performed. Abu Hurrairah (R.A) narrated the Holy Prophet (PBUH) once talking about Hajj as:
“Whoever performs Hajj and does not commit any obscenity or transgression shall return [free from sins] as he was on the day his mother gave birth to him.” (Al-Bukhari)