A Brief Overview of Islam’s Contributions to Science and Technology

Most people are not aware that modern science has its roots in the Islamic golden age. Historians will tell us that the development of science and technology have always been lead by the wealthiest societies in any given era. This is perhaps rather simple logic as it is a given that it is wealthy societies and individuals, free from the burdens of providing for the basics of survival that have the time and resources to engage in scientific speculation, research and experimentation.

This article highlights the scientific advances during the Islamic Golden Age, a time when Muslim rule spanned across three continents including parts of Europe, in what is now Spain.



  • Ibn Firnas, from Andalusia Spain, invented a planetarium and it is claimed that he is the first person to fly an aircraft.
  • Al-Zarqali, from Andalusia/Cordoba measured the stars and invented important instruments for doing so.
  • Al-Bitruji, also from Andalusia, studied the stellar movements.
  • Al-Fargani, from Persia, wrote the very influential book called elements of Astronomy.
  • Al-Sufi, from Persia did important work on the Andromeda galaxy.

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