Steps on how to perform the purification bath (Ghusl/Jannabat) in Islam

In Islam, purification is usually recommended after certain instances. Eg a Muslim is expected to purify him/herself after sexual intercourse or stimulation, menstrual period, wet dreams just to name a few. Thus, any prayer made after such instances without purification is invalid.

However, before performing Ghusl one must make intention (Niyyah) thus with the following declaration “I am performing Jannaba so as to become pure”.  Without intention, the Ghusl will be valid but there will be no reward. When performing Ghusl, one shouldn’t face the Kiblah and it should be performed in a private place. Furthermore, Ghusl can be performed while standing or seated, but preferably seated. One should abstain from speaking while performing Ghusl and use sufficient water. It is preferred for one not to recite any Kalimah or Aayah while bathing.  Above all, one should be aware of the following rules whilst performing Jannabat:

  1. Wash both hands up to the wrists thoroughly.
  2. Wash the private parts thoroughly.

Note: the hands and private parts should be washed even if one is not in the state of Janaabat or Najaasat (impurity).

  1. If there is Najaasat elsewhere on the body, it should now be washed off.
  2. Perform Wudhu (according to Sunnah). If you performing Ghusl on a stool or platform where water will rapidly flow away, then perform the complete Wudhu. However, if there is fear of the feet being immersed in wastewater during the Ghusl then one can avoid the washing of the feet till the end of the Ghusl.
  3. Thoroughly rinsed the mouth and nostrils (3 times).
  4. After performing Wudhu, pour water over the head (3times)
  5. Then pour water 3 times over right shoulder and do the same goes for the left shoulder.
  6. Then pour water over the entire body and rub thoroughly.
  7. On the head, if the hair is not plaited, it is obligatory to wet the hair to its root. Thus, if a single hair is left out, Ghusl will not be valid. On the other hand, if the hair of a woman is plaited, she is not obliged to loose her plaited hair but it is obligatory for her to wet the root of each and every hair. Failure to do so will render Ghusl invalid. However, if a woman experiences difficulty or is unable to wet up to the root of her plaited hair, then it is preferred for her to undo her hair and wash her entire head.
  8. It is preferable to clean the body by rubbing it thoroughly.
  9. Every part of the body should be rubbed thoroughly with the hand to make sure that no portion is left dry.
  10. One is advised to take off all rings and earrings, etc. this is to make sure that no portion covered by them is left dry. Ensure that the navel and the ears are all wetted. If they are not wet Jannabat will be incomplete.
  11. At the end of the Ghusl, one should relocate oneself to a clean place and wash the feet if it was not washed during Wudhu. If, while performing Wudhu, the feet had been washed, it is not necessary to wash them again.
  12. Dry the body with a clean towel and dress up.

However, upon completion of Ghusl, if one recalls that a certain portion of the body is left dry, it is not necessary to repeat the Ghusl but wash the dry portion accordingly. Also, if one forgets to wash the mouth or nostrils, it is preferred that the two be rinsed when recalled after performing Ghusl.

Finally, it is imperative to note the following compulsory acts (Faraa’id) of Ghusl:

  1. To rinse the mouth in such a way that water reaches the entire mouth.
  2. To rinse the nostrils to the ending of the fleshy part.
  3. To completely rub and wet the whole body. When one performs these Faraa’id intentionally or unintentionally, Ghusl will be valid.


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